Units of Measurement



THIS IS THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS.
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be converted from one form to another.

 

KINETIC ENERGY is motion energy.
POTENTIAL ENERGY is energy stored in matter

 

ENERGY IS MEASURED IN JOULES(J)
 – BTU= 1,055 Joules
 – Calorie = 4.187 Joules

 

POWER IS MEASURED IN WATTS (W)
– 
 Watt= 1 Joule/second
– 746 Watts= 1 Horsepower
– 
1000 Watts= 1 Kiowatt

 

JOHN STIVERS – WORK ENERGY POWER
This video breaks down WORK, ENERGY and POWER into an easily understood explanation.

John Stivers- Work Energy Power 2014-01-16 at 2.51.19 PM

Well let’s start with work. Physicists define work as a force applied over a distance. If you take an object, say a toolbox and apply a force, 22 pounds of force and you move it two feet, you’ve done 44 foot pounds of work. In metric those units convert to 100 newtons of force, and let’s say we moved it 0.60 of a meter. So we’ve done 60 newton-meters of work. In the metric system that’s referred to as a joule, 1 newton-meter is 1 joule.  Continue reading the transcript.  energy-101.org

 

 

HOW TO CONVERT DATA IN ONE UNIT OF MEASURE TO A DIFFERENT UNIT OF MEASURE?
 www.eia.gov

Energy conversion calculators
Heat content and metric conversion factors
Unit of measure equivalents (for electricity)

 

ENERGY UNITS AND CONVERSIONS
by Dennis Silverman    www.physics.uci.edu/~silverma

1 Joule (J) is the MKS unit of energy, equal to the force of one Newton acting through one meter.
1 Watt is the power of a Joule of energy per second

Power = Current x Voltage (P = I V)
1 Watt is the power from a current of 1 Ampere flowing through 1 Volt.
1 kilowatt is a thousand Watts.
1 kilowatt-hour is the energy of one kilowatt power flowing for one hour. (E = P t).
1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.6 x 106  J = 3.6 million Joules

1 calorie of heat is the amount needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Centigrade.
1 calorie (cal) = 4.184 J
(The Calories in food ratings are actually kilocalories.)

A BTU (British Thermal Unit) is the amount of heat necessary to raise one pound of water by 1 degree Farenheit (F).
1 British Thermal Unit (BTU) = 1055 J (The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Relation)
1 BTU = 252 cal  = 1.055 kJ
1 Quad = 1015 BTU  (World energy usage is about 300 Quads/year, US is about 100 Quads/year in 1996.)
1 therm = 100,000 BTU
1,000 kWh = 3.41 million BTU  www.physics.uci.edu/~silverma/units.html

 

POWER CONVERSION
1 horsepower (hp) = 745.7 watts

 

GAS VOLUME TO ENERGY CONVERSION
One thousand cubic feet of gas (Mcf) -> 1.027 million BTU = 1.083 billion J = 301 kWh
One therm = 100,000 BTU = 105.5 MJ = 29.3 kWh
1 Mcf -> 10.27 therms

 

Btu Content of Common Energy Units
1 barrel (42 gallons) of crude oil = 5,800,000 Btu
1 gallon of gasoline = 124,238 Btu (based on U.S. consumption, 2008)
1 gallon of diesel fuel = 138,690 Btu
1 gallon of heating oil = 138,690 Btu
1 barrel of residual fuel oil = 6,287,000 Btu
1 cubic foot of natural gas = 1,027 Btu (based on U.S. consumption, 2008)
1 gallon of propane = 91,033 Btu
1 short ton of coal = 19,977,000 Btu (based on U.S. consumption, 2008)
1 kilowatthour of electricity = 3,412 Btu
Source: US Energy Information Administration

 

CO2 POLLUTION OF FOSSIL FUELS
Pounds of CO2 per billion BTU of energy::
Coal            208,000 pounds
Oil               164,000 pounds
Natural Gas 117,000 pounds

Ratios of CO2 pollution:
Oil / Natural Gas = 1.40
Coal / Natural Gas = 1.78

Pounds of CO2 per 1,000 kWh, at 100% efficiency:
Coal             709 pounds
Oil                559 pounds
Natural Gas  399 pounds
physics.uci.edu/~silverma/units.html

 

BIO FUELS – ENERGY CONTENT
COMMON BIO FUELS AND THEIR ENERGY CONTENT- See chart…engineeringtoolbox.com/

 

8 OF 53 INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT . . .
Energy
http://facts.randomhistory.com/energy-facts.html

According to Google, the energy it takes to conduct 100 searches on its site is equivalent to a 60-watt light bulb burning for 28 minutes. Google uses about 0.0003 kWh of energy to answer the avenge search query, which translates into about 0.2 g of carbon dioxide released.

In the average home, 75% of the electricity used to power home electronics is consumed while the products are turned off. The average desktop computer idles at 80 watts, while the average laptop idles at 20 watts. A Sony PlayStation 3 uses about 200 watts and nearly as much when idle. Idle power consumes more electricity than all the solar panels in America combined.

Only 10% of energy in a light bulb is used to create light. Ninety percent of a light bulb’s energy creates heat. Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs), on the other hand, use about 80% less electricity than conventional bulbs and last up to 12 times as long.

The amount of energy Americans use doubles every 20 years.

The United States produces more nuclear-generated electricity than any other country, nearly 1/3 of the world’s total. The second largest producer is France, which generates more than 3/4 of its electricity in nuclear reactors.

The top seven oil consumers combined use more than half of the world’s total. The United States alone uses more than a quarter.

More than 1/5 of the world’s primary energy is used for transport, followed by industry, construction, and agricultures. Much is in the form of gasoline, of which nearly 792.5 million gallons is burned every day.

A hurricane releases 50 trillion to 200 trillion watts of heat energy. This is as much energy as a 10-megaton nuclear bomb exploding every 20 minutes.

 

 

10 OF 47 CRITICAL FACTS ABOUT . . .
Global Warming  http://facts.randomhistory.com/2009/01/29_global-warming.html

The United States represents less than 5% of the world’s population, yet Americans account for 25% of the world’s commercial energy consumption and 22% of the world’s industrial emissions of CO2.

Cars amount to three-quarters of all transportation emissions. At the current rate, there will be over a billion cars in 2030, and a billion more by 2050.

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the ocean’s acidity has increased by approximately 30%.

Scientists expect a 3.5° F increase in average global temperatures by the year 2100, resulting in the warmest temperatures in the past million years. The last time the Earth was this warm 1.8 million years ago, when sea levels were also 12-18 feet higher.

Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius was the first to note in 1896 that fossil fuel combustion could result in global warming.

Cows burping, pooping, and emitting gas release over 13 million tons of methane each year, which is 70% more emissions than the oil and gas industry. After carbon dioxide, methane is the most widespread greenhouse gas.

In 1910, Glacier National Park in Montana boasted 150 glaciers—today there are just 27.

Without the atmosphere to create a greenhouse-type effect, the average temperature on Earth would be just 5° Fahrenheit (F).

 Fossil fuel burning currently adds nearly six billion tons of CO2 to the atmosphere every year. Only half of this CO2 is removed by forests and oceans.

The earth’s atmosphere now contains 40% more CO2 than before the Industrial Revolution.
http://facts.randomhistory.com/2009/01/29_global-warming.html

 

5 OF 50 INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT . . .
North Dakota  http://facts.randomhistory.com/north-dakota-facts.html

Lewis and Clark spent more time in North Dakota than in any other place they visited on their expedition.

The world’s largest hamburger was eaten in Rutland, North Dakota. It weighed 3,591 pounds and more than 8,000 people were invited to the meal.

North Dakota farmland would cover over 12 million city blocks. Farmers there produce enough wheat each year to make 12.6 billion loaves of bread.

It’s illegal to go dancing in Fargo with a hat on. It is even illegal to wear a hat at a party where other people are dancing. It is also illegal in North Dakota to take a nap with your shoes on. After 11 pm, it is illegal to set off fireworks at Devil’s Lake in North Dakota.

Lying just under the surface of western North Dakota is about 25 billion tons of lignite, enough to supply the region’s coal needs for over 800 years.
http://facts.randomhistory.com/north-dakota-facts.html

 

6 OF 55 INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT . . .
Nuclear Power  http://facts.randomhistory.com/nuclear-energy-facts.html

Today, 104 nuclear plants supply about 20% of the United State’s electricity. The oldest plants have been operating since before 1979. There have been no new sites built since the Three Mile Island disaster (1979).

In the United States, radioactivity is often measured in rems. However, most countries currently use the sievert (Sv) to measure radioactivity. One sievert is equal to 100 rems. The nuclear waste from an entire reactor gives off about 10,000 rems per hour, even 10 years after it was first used in a nuclear plant. A human who is exposed to 500 rems at one time will die.

Waste from the 1979 Three Mile Island accident is stored in Idaho, even though Idaho has never had a commercial reactor. Illinois has the most spent nuclear fuel of any other state in the U.S. at 9,301 tons. It is followed by Pennsylvania (6,446 tons), South Carolina (4,290), and New York and North Carolina (3,780 tons each).

The Sun produces an enormous amount of energy from its nuclear reactions that change hydrogen into helium. In the process, the Sun loses over 4 million tons of mass—every second.

Just removing a person’s outer clothing can remove 90% of the radioactive material after a disaster.

Before Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, the International Energy Agency predicted that nuclear plants would add 360 gigawatts of generating capacity by 2035. After Fukushima, the IEA halved those estimates.
http://facts.randomhistory.com/nuclear-energy-facts.html

 

How Efficient Is Your Home?
To find out, visit: Home Energy Saver™ (HES).

 

Examples of Converting Different Energy Sources to Btu

UNIT MEASURE- BTU CONVERS

Answer: When you convert the fuels into the same units, you see that residual fuel oil now costs more than natural gas. You decide to switch to natural gas to save money.
Source: US Energy Information Administration