GEOTHERMAL- Basics


Geothermal energy— geo (earth) + thermal (heat) —is heat energy from the earth.

 

WHAT IS A GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE?
energy.gov

Geothermal resources are reservoirs of hot water that exist at varying temperatures and depths below the Earth’s surface. Mile-or-more-deep wells can be drilled into underground reservoirs to tap steam and very hot water that can be brought to the surface for use in a variety of applications, including electricity generation, direct use, and heating and cooling. In the United States, most geothermal reservoirs are located in the western states…Read more>>  energy.gov

 

THE BENEFITS OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
energy.gov

– Baseload
– Clean
– Domestic
– Footprint
– Renewable

 

 

THERE ARE THREE BASIC TYPES OF GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS:

 

GEOTHERM DRY STEAMDry steam plants use steam piped directly from a geothermal reservoir to turn the generator turbines. The first geothermal power plant was built in 1904 in Tuscany, Italy, where natural steam erupted from the Earth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GEOTHERM FLASH STEAMFlash steam plants take high-pressure hot water from deep inside the Earth and convert it to steam to drive the generator turbines. When the steam cools, it condenses to water and is injected back into the ground to be used over and over again. Most geothermal power plants are flash steam plants.

 

 

 

 

 

GEOTHERM BINARY CYCLEBinary cycle power plants transfer the heat from geothermal hot water to another liquid. The heat causes the second liquid to turn to steam which is used to drive a generator turbine….learn more>>   www.eia.doe.gov

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 LOCATION MAP OF GEOTHERMAL

Most of the geothermal power plants in the United States are in western states and Hawaii, where geothermal energy resources are close to the earth’s surface. California generates the most electricity from geothermal energy. The Geysers dry steam reservoir in northern California is the largest known dry steam field in the world and has been producing electricity since 1960.
(Information from EIA.GOV)

interactive map>> maps.nrel.gov/geothermal-prospector

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERATING CAPACITY

GEOTHERM POWER GENERATION

This geothermal map shows current and planned power generation capacity by state.   www.nrel.gov

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OPERATING AND DEVELOPING POWER PLANTS

GEOTHERM OPERATING PLANTS    GEOTHERM DEVELOP POWER PLANTSDeveloping geothermal projects and operating geothermal power plants information aggregated from the Geothermal Energy Association.    www.nrel.gov   

 

WHAT ARE ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS
energy.gov

GEOTHERM ENHANCED SYSTEMEGS are engineered reservoirs created to produce energy from geothermal resources that are otherwise not economical due to lack of water and/or permeability. EGS technology has the potential for accessing the earth’s vast resources of heat located at depth to help meet the energy needs of the United States. energy.gov

EGS Fact Sheet- egs_factsheet.pdf  energy.gov/eere/geothermal/downloads

 

 

 

 

INSTALLED GENERATING CAPACITY ON OUR PLANET
Who are the top 25 nations when it comes to generating capacity.    www.geothermal-energy.org

 

HOW DOES GEOTHERMAL COMPARE TO OTHER ENERGY SOURCES?

GEOTHERM HOW ENERGY WORKS   …The initial costs of geothermal energy are high — wells can cost $1 to $4 million each to drill, and installation of a home geothermal pump system can run as much as $30,000 [sources: REPP, Consumer Energy Center]. However, a home geothermal energy pump can cut energy bills by 30 to 40 percent and will pay for itself within 5 to 10 years [source: Consumer Energy Center]. Read more>>    science.howstuffworks.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WHAT WE DO WITH IT
Nearly all countries that produce geothermal electric power also utilize direct use and or geothermal heat pumps.

GEOTHERM GLOBAL USE www.geothermal.org

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The uses to which these resources are applied are also influenced by temperature. The highest temperature resources are generally used only for electric power generation. Current U.S. geothermal electric power generation totals approximately 3,087 MW or about the same as five large nuclear power plants.

THERM SCHEMATIC DEPTH www.geothermal.org