PETROLEUM- Transportion Crude to Refineries, Tankers



TANKERS

How Oil Tankers Work
Akweli Parker
science.howstuffworks.com

Soon after entrepreneurs in the 1850s began exploiting crude oil as a source of energy, the nascent oil industry found itself in a dilemma. How were early oil prospectors supposed to transport this “black gold” from the remote locations from whence it sprang, to places where it could be refined, sold and used?

It didn’t take long for these early oil barons to come up with a solution. The first oil tankers were built in the 1860s and propelled by wind-powered sails. In 1873,>>science.howstuffworks.com

– More Types of Oil Tankers: In addition to classifying these mighty maritime vessels as crude tankers and product tankers, we can sub-categorize them even further. Some tankers are built to haul oil from one point to another, while replenishment oilers are designed to ferry fuelout to ships at sea and refuel them.>>science.howstuffworks.com

– Oil Tanker Mishaps, Tougher Laws: On March 24, 1989, the world watched in horror as one of history’s most environmentally destructive oil spills marred Alaska’s Prince William Sound. The accident — caused when Exxon’s tanker Valdez ran aground — would make the ship’s name synonymous with man-made catastrophe…>>science.howstuffworks.com

– Fully Loaded Oil Tankers, A Prize for Present-Day Pirates: Generally speaking, petroleum products like gasolinemay not cost much at the pump, but the cargo of a fully laden tanker can be worth tens of millions of dollars. This fact has attracted the unwanted attention of piratesthat attack tankers at sea and hold crews and cargo hostage for big ransoms.>> science.howstuffworks.com

-The Business of Oil Tankers: Before an oil tanker takes on a single drop of cargo, the company that owns the ship enters into a highly detailed agreement called a charter. Several types of charters exist. There’s the bareboat charter, in which>>science.howstuffworks.com

 

The Value of Maritime Transportation
api.org
Waterways are the most efficient way of transporting everyday products – from petroleum, grain, coal and farm products to steel, sand, chemicals, and other building supplies – across the country. U.S. inland waterways and rivers are the backbone of the freight network, carrying the equivalent of about 51 million truck trips each year. These marine highways are a crucial way to…>>api.org
– The Value of Maritime Transportation
–  Maritime Safety & Efficiency
–  Tankers: Fueling American Life
–  and more>>
api.org

 

Transporting Crude Oil To Refineries
greentransportation.info
The oil industry isn’t just turning to the rail network for shipping crude oil. In some cases barges are carrying crude oil, where there’s a convenient waterway. River barges can carry 10-30,000 barrels of crude oil, and are generally tied together so two or three barges are towed together for a total of 20-90,000 barrels. This is about the same capacity as an oil train (see below). Coastal tank barges are larger and might carry 50,000-185,000 barrels of oil, with some newer ones capable of carrying 340,000 barrels of oil.>>
greentransportation.info