PETROLEUM- Transporting and Infrastructure



TRANSPORTING

 

 

Transporting Oil and Natural Gas

Advances in exploration and production have helped to locate and recover a supply of oil and natural gas from major reserves across the globe. At the same time, demand for petroleum-based products has grown in every corner of the world. But supply and demand are rarely concentrated in the same place. Transportation therefore is vital to ensuring the reliable and affordable flow of petroleum we all count on to fuel our cars, heat our homes and improve the quality of our lives.

Tankers and pipelines are proven, …Learn more>>
– Oil Tankers
– Pipelines
– Pipeline Performance Tracking System
– Rail Transportation
api.org

 

 

petroleum-transportation    Movements of crude oil by rail within the United States averaged 443,000 barrels per day (b/d) in the first five months of 2016, down 45% from the same period last year. Fewer shipments of crude oil by rail from the Midwest (PADD 2) to the East Coast (PADD 1) account for about half of the decline. Crude oil shipments by rail have generally decreased since last summer for several reasons…Learn more>>
www.eia.gov

 

 

nonrenewable-button    A timeline of recent oil train crashes in the US and Canada

Jun. 3, 2016-   The derailment of an oil train in Oregon’s Columbia River Gorge follows a string of fiery accidents in the U.S. and Canada as shipments of crude by rail have increased with more domestic oil production:  Read the time-line>>                               bigstory.ap.org

 

 

Pipeline 101

Pipeline Construction: Step by Step Guide
www.fractracker.org

The current natural gas pipeline boom gives many homeowners a first row seat to the process of pipeline construction. The rush to move natural gas to markets places pipelines too-close-to home, with construction taking place in backyards, farms, pastures, and right at the mailboxes of residents throughout the country. This page walks you through the process of a natural gas pipeline currently being constructed.

Getting started: After all federal and state level permits are approved and easement agreements or eminent domain condemnations completed, the process…Learn more>>

Step 1: Construction Staging Areas & Storage Yards
Step 2: Clear Cutting the ROW
Step 3: Excavating the Trench
Step 4: Pipe Transport, Stringing, & Assembly
Step 5: Obstacles: Roads & Streams
Step 6: Testing & Restoration
www.fractracker.org

 

nonrenewable-button Why Do Oil Pipelines That Transfer Oil Long Distances Run In A Zigzag Manner?
By
Roar NybøAug 21, 2014   www.quora.com

nonrenewable-buttonEnbridge-Marathon Venture Buys Interest In Bakken Pipeline
                         By OGJ editor  |  August 4,2016   www.ogj.com

 

Other Means Of Transport

Pipelines are not the only way to move petroleum and refined petroleum products. The real question is: how do they stack up against the other transportation modes– tank ships and barges, trucks and railroad tank cars?

Approximately 71 % of crude oil and petroleum products are shipped by…Learn more>> pipeline101.com

 

 

Why Do We Need Pipelines?

PETROLEUM- TRANSPER WHY DO WE NEED PIPE   Everyone knows the location of their local gas station; your home may be warmed by heating oil or natural gas; and many homes use natural gas for cooking. But did you know that these products – gasoline, home heating oil, and natural gas – travel long distances from refineries and natural gas plants to communities all over the nation through underground pipelines?

These pipelines are the unsung heroes of many utilities – water, sewer, telephone lines, liquid petroleum pipelines and natural gas pipelines – tucked under our streets. They safely go through…Learn more>>
pipeline101.com

 

Where Are Pipelines Located?

engage with map>>

PETROLEUM- TRANS PIPE MAP

…Pipelines exist almost everywhere. Natural gas is delivered directly to homes in relatively small diameter distribution lines buried under the street and even your own yard. Larger cross-country transmission pipelines delivering gasoline, home heating oil, or moving crude oil or natural gas are actually easier to find.

Nearly the entire mainline pipe is buried, but other pipeline components such as…Learn more>> 
pipeline101.com

 

Are Pipelines Safe?

Pipelines are an extremely safe way to transport energy across the country. A barrel of crude oil or petroleum product shipped by pipeline reaches its destination safely more than 99.999% of the time. Pipeline releases decreased more than 60 percent from 2001 to 2012. The number of releases deemed “significant” and “serious”…Learn more>>  pipeline101.com

 

The History of Pipelines
– 1800
– 1900 to 1950
– 1950 to Present
 pipeline101.com

 

Oil Shipments By Rail, Truck, And Barge Up Substantially

 

instituteforenergyresearch.org

Most oil and petroleum products are moved to refineries and consuming areas by pipeline, which is both the safest and most economical means of transporting them. However, due to a shortage of pipeline capacity, more and more oil and petroleum products are being moved by rail, truck, and barge. Those shipments almost…Learn more>>
– Rail Shipments
– New Pipeline Construction and Alternative Transportation Modes
– Conclusion
instituteforenergyresearch.org

 

 

INFRASTRUCTURE

Interactive Energy Map- eia.gov

PETROLEUM- INFRASTRUC ENERGY MAP  Welcome to the U.S. Energy Mapping System. Please explore all of the options available to you within the map above. There are many features and options available through the “Layers/Legend” menu including our recommended map views on a variety of subjects as well as the ability to customize mapping layer options that may better suit your energy needs.

eia.gov

 

 

 

Much Of The Country’s Refinery Capacity Is Concentrated Along The Gulf Coast

PETROLEUM- REFINERIES ON COAST  <<enlarge map and learn more

 

 

eia.gov

 

 

Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries
See PAD districts 2 through 5>>

petroleum-transport-refineries

 

 

 

 

 

eia.gov

 

What Fuels Are Made From Crude Oil?

See the list of other products made from petroleum>>

 

 

 

 

 

 

eia.gov

 

 

 

 

 

How Oil Refining Works
by Craig Freudenrich, Ph.D.     science.howstuffworks.com

…Oil refining separates everything into useful substances. Chemists use the following steps:
– Fractional Distillation
– Chemical Processing
– Treating and Blending the Fractions

 

Ownership Of U.S. Petroleum Refineries Has Changed Significantly Since 2000

Many refining companies changed substantially between 2000 and mid-year 2013. Some key themes are:PETROLEUM- REFINERIES SINCE 2000 eia.gov

– Specialization

– Refocus away from refining.

– Refocus on refining.

– Vertical integration

 

 

 

 

Strategic Petroleum Reserve

In the event of a commercial supply disruption, the United States can turn to the emergency stockpiles of petroleum products managed by the Department of Energy’s Office of Petroleum Reserves (OPR). The mission of the OPR is to protect the United States from severe petroleum supply interruptions through the acquisition, storage, distribution and management of emergency petroleum stocks and to carry out U.S. obligations under the International Energy Program. The OPR manages three stockpiles: the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, and the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve. OPR also manages the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. …Learn more>>    energy.gov

 

Quick Facts and FAQ’S energy.gov
Current inventory 
Current storage design capacity – 714 million barrels
Crude Oil Storage by Site (as of August 31, 2015)
Average price paid for oil in the Reserve
Investment to date

energy.gov

Heating Oil Reserve

Of the 6.2 million households in the United States that use heating oil to heat their homes, nearly 80 percent reside in the Northeast region of the country – making this area especially vulnerable to…Learn more>>  energy.gov

-Heating Oil Reserve History
-Gasoline Supply Reserve
-Naval Petroleum Reserves

energy.gov