PETROLEUM- Energy Density and EROIE



ENERGY DENSITY
noun-the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.    dictionary.com

 

Joules, BTUs, Quads—Let’s Call the Whole Thing Off
spectrum.ieee.org
How To Replace A Cubic Mile Of Oil
By Harry Goldstein and William Sweet

The fact that energy sources and uses are stated in so many different kinds of terms is increasingly seen as not merely an annoyance but as a serious impediment to public understanding of critical choices. In an effort to get matters onto a more intuitive, citizen-friendly basis, a number of experts have hit on the convenient fact that the world at present consumes about 1 cubic mile of oil (CMO) per year. Among these experts are Ed Kinderman and Hewitt Crane at SRI International, in Menlo Park, Calif., who are preparing a book for Oxford University Press that will be built around the idea of normalizing all energy units to
1 CMO (4.17 cubic kilometers)…>>     spectrum.ieee.org

Some results of the exercise are displayed here. Prepare for your mind to be wonderfully sobered. To obtain in one year the amount of energy contained in one cubic mile of oil, each year for 50 years we would need to have produced the numbers of dams, nuclear power plants, coal plants, windmills, or solar panels shown here.>>     spectrum.ieee.org
<< enlarge the graphic

 read the entire document>>
friendsofscience.org

 

 

Which Fuel Has Highest Energy Density

<<enlarge graphic

Hydrogen (H2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is the most abundant resource in the universe. On earth, it is mostly found as water. It is not usually found in its pure form because it combines easily with other elements. It can, however, be reproduced from renewable resources.

Hydrogen has one of the highest energy density values per mass. Its energy density is between 120 and 142 MJ/kg. This means that for every…>> hypertextbook.com

 

Why Oil Is So Hard To Replace
5) Energy Density- 
Oil is a butter fried steak wrapped in bacon. Solar, Wind, and most other alternative energy resources are lettuce. You’d get all of your 2,000 calories a day from one and a quarter pounds of bacon-wrapped steak, versus 31 pounds of lettuce.

Oil is second only to uranium in energy density. This is because a gallon of gas comes from 100 tons of prehistoric plant matter (40 acres of wheat), condensed like moonshine over millions of years into the densest form of solar energy on the planet.  If you look at just the gasoline consumed every year in America, 131 billion gallons, that’s equal to 25 quadrillion pounds of prehistoric biomass…>>  energyskeptic.com

7) If You Wanted To Invent An Ideal Energy Source, You’d Make Oil- Oil has extremely high energy density, and is the most convenient form of energy ever discovered. As a liquid, it’s easily stored, transported, and used. It’s wonderfully combustible, but with a high enough flashpoint that it doesn’t explode easily.

Oil is a liquid, easily…>>    energyskeptic.com

 

Few Transportation Fuels Surpass the Energy Densities of Gasoline and Diesel
Energy density and the cost, weight, and size of onboard energy storage are important characteristics of fuels for transportation. Fuels that require large, heavy, or expensive storage can…learn more, enlarge graphic>>

eia.gov

 

Energy Content of some Combustibles (in MJ/kg)
<<enlarge graphic

Different fuels have different levels of energy content, which can be measured in terms of equivalent energy released through combustion. The higher the energy content the higher the fuel quality, which is inversely proportional to its chemical complexity. High quality fuels are gases while low quality fuels are solids, with liquids in between. The highest energy content fuel is hydrogen, which is also the simplest chemical component in existence…>> transportgeography.org

 

Energy content of fuels
<<enlarge chart
Gasoline contains, on average, 32 MJ/L. Actual energy content varies, by up to 4%, from season to season and from batch to batch[1]. On average, about 19.5 USgal of gasoline are available from a 42 USgal barrel of crude oil (about 46% by volume), varying due to quality of crude and grade of gasoline. The remaining residue comes off as products ranging from tar to naptha.[2]

Volumetric and mass energy density of some fuels compared with gasoline:[3] …learn more>> appropedia.org

 

 

EROEI

Definition
EROEI=  energy returned on energy invested
EROI= energy return on investment

ERoEI for Beginners
by Euan Mearns |  May 25,2016
<<enlarge graphic
The Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI or EROI) of any energy gathering system is a measure of that system’s efficiency. The concept was originally derived in ecology and has been transferred to analyse human industrial society. In today’s energy mix, hydroelectric power ± nuclear power have values > 50. At the other end of the scale, solar PV and biofuels have values <5.

It is assumed that ERoEI >5 to 7 is required for modern society to function. This marks the edge of The Net Energy Cliff and it is clear that new Green technologies designed to save humanity from CO2 may kill humanity through energy starvation instead. Fossil fuels remain comfortably away from the cliff edge but march closer to it for every year that passes. The Cheetah symbolises an energy system living on the edge.

I first came across the concept of Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) several years ago in Richard Heinberg’s book The Party’s Over [1]. I had never contemplated the concept before and I was immediately struck by its importance. If we used more energy to get the energy we need to survive then we will surely perish.>> euanmearns.com


How Much Net Energy Return Is Needed To Prevent Collapse?
by energyskeptic |

This will give you a good idea of what Hall means by EROI (Hall 2011):
    If you’ve got an EROI of 1.1:1, you can pump the oil out of the ground and look at it.
If you’ve got 1.2:1, you can refine it and look at it.
At 1.3:1, you can move it to where you want it and look at it.
We looked at the minimum EROI you need to drive a truck, and you need at least 3:1 at the wellhead.
Now, if you want to put anything in the truck, like grain, you need to have an EROI of 5:1. And that includes the depreciation for the truck.
But if you want to include the depreciation for the truck driver and the oil worker and the farmer, then you’ve got to support the families. And then you need an EROI of 7:1
And if you want education, you need 8:1 or 9:1
And if you want health care, you need 10:1 or 11:1

We begin to go over the net energy cliff as soon around 14 if you consider…>> energyskeptic.com

 

The EROI of Oil (Ahmed 2017)
The debate over the precise point of peak production of an energy resource can be ultimately misleading. Production levels do not reflect the quality of the energy being produced as measured by EROI. An analysis focusing only on rates and levels of production can mask the accelerating production costs, which rise due to the decline in resource quality, so that rising production is unable to meet the energy requirements of society due to plummeting EROI values.

This is shown in a major Royal Society study focusing on the declining EROI for global oil and gas production, which calculated that the latter’s EROI is roughly 15:1 and declining, and the U.S. EROI of oil and gas production is about…>> energyskeptic.com

 

Society’s Hierarchy of “Energetic Needs”

“Pyramid of Energetic Needs” representing the minimum EROI required for conventional oil, at the well-head, to be able to perform various tasks required for civilization. The blue values are published values, the yellow values increasingly speculative. Each increment in EROI allows more and more work to be done. EROI chart from “EROI of Global Energy Resources Preliminary Status and Trends” Jessica Lambert, Charles Hall, Steve Balogh, Alex Poisson, and Ajay Gupta State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry.

Abstract.  The near- and long-term societal effects of declining EROI are uncertain, but probably adverse.  To evaluate the possible linkages between societal well-being and net energy availability, we compare these preliminary estimates of energy availability: (1) EROI at a societal level, (2) energy use per capita, (3) multiple regression analyses and (4) a new composite energy index (Lambert Energy Index), to select indicators of quality of life (HDI, percent children under weight, health expenditures, Gender Inequality Index, literacy rate and access to improved water). Our results suggest that energy indices are highly correlated with a higher standard of living…>>  energyskeptic.com

 

EROEI: A Useful Measure or a Distraction?
peakoil.com
It seems so simple. If the amount of energy produced relative to the amount of energy utilized in producing that energy tends to decline, at some point as the ratio approaches 1.0 (or perhaps even becomes a fraction less than 1.0) there is little if any return on the energy invested and society will collapse. But is this concept really workable and useful?

There are many issues related to how this ratio (sometimes abbreviated as EROI) is calculated. This affects both the numerator and the denominator of the ratio. The first problem is that this equation is usually interpreted as being the useful acquired energy divided by the useful energy expended.
– Energy Quality
– System Boundaries
– Present Value
– Factor Prices
– Relationship to Net Energy Gain
– Typical current EROEI values
– EROEI Trends
– Relationship to GDP
peakoil.com

Low Energy Return On Investment (EROI) Need Not Limit Oil Sands Extraction
By Rembrandt/June 10, 2013  theoildrum.com
– Introduction: Low energetic returns (e.g., EROI, NER) from oil sands extraction and upgrading have been noted as a potential limit to the development of the oil sands as a substitute for depleting conventional oil resources (e.g., Herweyer and Gupta, 2008). In this article we will examine this claim from a variety of perspectives….for an in-depth study and graphs click the links below>>
– Are energy returns from oil sands extraction lower than conventional oil?
– How have energy returns from oil sands extraction changed over time?
– What are the implications of oil sands energy sourcing for limitations due to low energy returns?
– Will low energy returns limit the output of net energy from the oil sands?
theoildrum.com

 

Oil Sands Mining Uses Up Almost As Much Energy As It Produces
Thanks to high global oil prices, industry can afford the large amount of energy needed to extract the oil and turn it into a usable fuel.
By Rachel Nuwer | InsideClimate News | Feb 19, 2013

The average “energy returned on investment,” or EROI, for conventional oil is roughly 25:1. In other words, 25 units of oil-based energy are obtained for every one unit of other energy that is invested to extract it.

But tar sands oil is in a category all its own.

Tar sands retrieved by surface mining has an EROI of only about 5:1,…>>
insideclimatenews.org