COAL- Basics



COAL FOSSIL FUEL
Coal, solid, usually brown or black, carbon-rich material that most often occurs in stratified sedimentary deposits. It is one of the most important of the primary fossil fuels. Noted coal geologist James Morton Schopf defined coal as containing more than 50 percent by weight (or 70 percent by volume) carbonaceous matter produced by the compaction and induration of altered plant remains—namely, peat deposits. Different varieties of coal arise because of…Read more>>   britannica.com

 

WHAT IS COAL?
Coal formation began during the Carboniferous Period – known as the first coal age – which spanned 360 million to 290 million years ago…Read more>>  worldcoal.org/coal

Coal is a fossil fuel created from the remains of plants that lived and died about 100 to 400 million years ago when parts of the earth were covered with huge swampy forests. Coal is classified as a nonrenewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form.

The energy we get from coal today comes from…Read more>>  lsa.colorado.edu

 

How is Coal Formed

COAL how is it formed

Most coal formed approximately 300 million years ago, from the remains of trees and other vegetation. These remains were trapped on the bottom of swamps, accumulating layer after layer and creating a dense material called peat. As this peat was buried under more and more ground, the high temperatures and pressure transformed it into coal…Learn more>> zmescience.com

 

 

ENERGY DENSITY OF COAL

COAL BASICS- energy density2   hypertextbook.com/facts

 

TYPES OF COAL
What is Coal “Rank”?-   geology.com/rocks/coal

PEAT

COAL peat

LIGNITE 

COAL lignite

SUB-BITUMINOUS AND BITUMINOUS-

THE DIFFERENCE?   As this process of burial and alteration continues, more chemical and physical changes occur and a the coal is classified as bituminous. Read more>>      uky.edu

COAL bituminous

ANTHRACITE 

COAL anthracite

 

 

CLASSIFICATION OF COAL
After a considerable amount of time, heat, and burial pressure, it is metamorphosed from peat to lignite. Lignite is considered to be “immature” coal at this stage of development because it is still somewhat light in color and it remains soft.
Charts for:   engineeringtoolbox.com
Typical Sulfur Content in Coal
Typical Moisture Content in Coal
Typical Fixed Carbon Content in Coal
Typical Bulk Density of Coal
Typical Ash Content in Coal

 

COAL THROUGH A MICROSCOPE

COAL - BASICS under the micro scope      It’s Far More Than A Black Rock!  If you think that coal is a boring black rock then you have never seen it through a transmitted light microscope. The microscope reveals coal’s hidden beauty as well as its organic composition… For more pictures and story>>   geology.com

 

WHERE IS COAL FOUND
eia.gov

Which States Produce The Most Coal?
In 2015, about 897 million short tons of coal were produced in 25 states. Five states produced a total of about 639 million short tons, or about 71% of total U.S. coal production. The five largest coal producing states with production in million short tons and the share of total U.S. coal production in 2015:
– Wyoming: 375.8 (42%)
– West Virginia: 95.6 (11%)
– Kentucky: 61.4 (7%)
– Illinois: 56.1 (6%)
– Pennsylvania: 50.0 (6%)

For the complete list:   Latest Coal production by state (preliminary 2015)
eia.gov

 

Proven coal reserves of the leading countries worldwide in 2016 (in million metric tons) 

<<enlarge graphic plus view other great graphics

 

 

 

 

 

statista.com/statistics

 

COAL MINING
worldcoal.org

Mining Methods-  Coal is mined by two methods:   SURFACE MINING and UNDERGROUND MINING

Surface mining – also known as opencast or opencut mining – is only economic when the coal seam is near the surface.

Large opencast mines can cover an area of many square kilometres and use very large pieces of equipment can cover an area of many square kilometres and use very large pieces of equipment, such as draglines, power shovels, large trucks, bucket wheel excavators and conveyors.

Underground mining-   worldcoal.org

Room & Pillar Mining- In room-and-pillar mining, coal deposits are mined by cutting a network of ‘rooms’ into the coal seam and leaving behind ‘pillars’ of coal to support the roof of the mine.

Longwall Mining- Longwall mining involves the full extraction of coal from a section of the seam, or ‘face’ using mechanical shearers.

 

USES OF COAL
What is Coal used for?  
Coal & Electricity
How is Steel Produced
Coal and Cement
Coal and Transport
Coal Combustion Products
worldcoal.org

 

GASES FROM COAL
Types Of Coal Gas?    Gases derived from coal come in four key forms>> clarke-energy.com

Coal Seam Methane (CSM), or Coal Bed Methane (CBM)
Coal Mine Methane (CMM), or Working Mine Methane (WMM)
Abandoned Mine Methane (AMM)
Syngas from Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)

For more information on these gases click below:
Coal Bed Methane (CBM)
Coal Mine Methane (CMM)
Abandoned Mine Methane (AMM)
Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)
Gas Engines and Coal Gas
Benefits of Coal Seam Methane for Captive Power
Coal Seam Gas Competence

clarke-energy.com