COAL FOSSIL FUEL
Coal, solid, usually brown or black, carbon-rich material that most often occurs in stratified sedimentary deposits. It is one of the most important of the primary fossil fuels. Noted coal geologist James Morton Schopf defined coal as containing more than 50 percent by weight (or 70 percent by volume) carbonaceous matter produced by the compaction and induration of altered plant remains—namely, peat deposits. Different varieties of coal arise because of…Read more>> britannica.com
WHAT IS COAL?
Coal is a fossil fuel created from the remains of plants that lived and died about 100 to 400 million years ago when parts of the earth were covered with huge swampy forests. Coal is classified as a nonrenewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form.
How is Coal Formed
uky.edu Coal is formed when peat is altered physically and chemically. This process is called “coalification.” During coalification, peat undergoes several changes as a result of bacterial decay, compaction, heat, and time. Peat deposits…Read more>> uky.edu
ENERGY DENSITY OF COAL
TYPES OF COAL
What is Coal “Rank”?- geology.com/rocks/coal
SUB-BITUMINOUS AND BITUMINOUS-
CLASSIFICATION OF COAL
After a considerable amount of time, heat, and burial pressure, it is metamorphosed from peat to lignite. Lignite is considered to be “immature” coal at this stage of development because it is still somewhat light in color and it remains soft.
Charts for: engineeringtoolbox.com
COAL THROUGH A MICROSCOPE
It’s Far More Than A Black Rock! If you think that coal is a boring black rock then you have never seen it through a transmitted light microscope. The microscope reveals coal’s hidden beauty as well as its organic composition… For more pictures and story>> geology.com
WHERE IS COAL FOUND
Which States Produce The Most Coal?
The five largest coal-producing states with production in million short tons and share of total U.S. coal production in 2014 were:
- Wyoming: 395.7 (40%)
- West Virginia: 112.2 (11%)
- Kentucky: 77.3 (8%)
- Pennsylvania: 60.9 (6%)
- Illinois: 58.0 (6%)
For the complete list: Latest Coal production by state (preliminary 2015)
Which Countries Produce The Most Coal?- greenbang.com
China – 1956.0 million metric tons (mmt)
US – 556.8 mmt
Australia – 230.8 mmt
India – 222.4 mmt
Indonesia – 199.8 mmt
Russia – 157.3 mmt
South Africa – 143.8 mmt
Kazakhstan – 58.8 mmt
Poland – 56.6 mmt
Colombia – 55.8 mmt
TOP 10 COUNTRIES WITH THE BIGGEST COAL RESERVES
21 November 2013
United States of America – 237.29Bt
Mining Methods- Coal is mined by two methods: SURFACE MINING and UNDERGROUND MINING
Surface mining – also known as opencast or opencut mining – is only economic when the coal seam is near the surface.
Large opencast mines can cover an area of many square kilometres and use very large pieces of equipment can cover an area of many square kilometres and use very large pieces of equipment, such as draglines, power shovels, large trucks, bucket wheel excavators and conveyors.
Underground mining- worldcoal.org
Room & Pillar Mining- In room-and-pillar mining, coal deposits are mined by cutting a network of ‘rooms’ into the coal seam and leaving behind ‘pillars’ of coal to support the roof of the mine.
Longwall Mining- Longwall mining involves the full extraction of coal from a section of the seam, or ‘face’ using mechanical shearers.
USES OF COAL
GASES FROM COAL
Types Of Coal Gas? Gases derived from coal come in four key forms>> clarke-energy.com
Coal Seam Methane (CSM), or Coal Bed Methane (CBM)
Coal Mine Methane (CMM), or Working Mine Methane (WMM)
Abandoned Mine Methane (AMM)
Syngas from Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)
For more information on these gases click below: